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Branches with bark inclusions split easily

tree splitThis tree split apart because of the bark inclusion in the union where the two codominant stems joined (see close-up at right for detail of the bark inclusion). A bark inclusion is where bark is included in the union (crotch) of two stems or in the union of a branch and trunk.


bark inclusionA close-up of the bark inclusion on the tree shown on the left (the outer edges are indicated with the arrows) shows that bark is actually enclosed or included in the union where the two stems once joined together. This clearly shows why included bark is a serious defect in shade trees.