Root pruning guidelines
Trenching and digging in the soil near trees can cut roots, and this can damage the tree resulting in tree decline or the tree falling over (See: fallen tree from cutting roots). This can cause liability and safety concerns. Root pruning is more injurious to old mature trees than it is for younger more vigorous trees. Cutting roots greater than about one inch diameter during trenching and digging can mean problems for the tree. In some cases roots of one to three inches diameter represent the major structural roots holding the tree upright.
The impact from pruning roots depends on several factors (see table below). Damage typically increases with more cuts, bigger cuts, and cuts made closer to the trunk. Root pruning, trenching, and other construction activities close to the trunk result in more injury on shallow, compacted soils or on soils that drain poorly than on well drained soils. This is due to the shallow roots common on sites with shallow soils or high water table. Trees that are leaning are poor candidates for root pruning. Prune roots only with sharp tools to avoid tearing behind the cuts.
Factors affecting response of trees to root pruning
- root size: larger roots may generate few new roots
- number of cut roots: more roots cut means more tree stress
- proximity of cuts to the trunk: the closer cuts are to the trunk the bigger the impact
- species: some species tolerate it better than others
- tree age: old trees are more likely to stress and die
- tree condition: trees in poor health should not be root pruned
- tree lean: leaning trees should not be root pruned
- soil type and site drainage: shallow soils mean stay farther from the trunk
How close to the trunk can roots be cut?
Well, the answer appears to depend on who you ask. For mature trees, some experts recommend not cutting roots closer than 6 to 8 inches from the trunk for each inch in trunk diameter. That means stay at least 10 feet away from a 20 inch tree! Others are more realistic and state that we should root prune no closer to the trunk than a distance equal to 3 times the trunk diameter, preferably 5 times the trunk diameter. Dr. Tom Smiley at the Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory in Charlotte showed that roots on one side of very young trees can be pruned off completely at a distance equal to 5 times the trunk diameter without any impact on tree stability. Which ever rule-of-thumb you decide to use, do so knowing that pruning roots on trees can result in trees falling over or dying. While root pruned large trees on well drained soil may not fall over because of deeper sinker roots under the trunk, they can and have. There are fewer deep roots holding the tree up on poorly drained and compacted soils.
Alternatives to root pruning
- add soil over the roots and re-sod
- curve the sidewalk around the surface roots
- elevate the walk over the roots
- suspend the footing on pilings
- re-pour the walk with steel in the concrete
- grind the concrete down
- raise the walk by injecting grout under it
- build the structure elsewhere
- dig under roots with trench-less technology
- live with
- See: more details on alternatives to root pruning