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Lateral roots grow horizontal

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roots exposed

This tree has been in the ground four years in USDA hardiness zone 6. About a six foot long portion of the root system was exposed. The root flare is beginning to swell in normal fashion. Long, sometimes unbranches roots grow in the upper soil layers for great distances. They twist around objects often returning to their original orientation. They are deflected by hard soil growing instead in the looser soil which contains more oxygen.